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Surfaced Mooring for Recovery


How to acknowledge data from the RAPID-MOCHA project:

Data from RAPID-MOCHA monitoring project are made freely available to the public. The project scientists would appreciate it if you added the following acknowledgment to any publications that use this data:

"Data from the RAPID-MOCHA program are funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation and U.K. Natural Environment Research Council and are freely available at and"


The AMOC Time Series and components

The AMOC time series and components 

Time series of Florida Current transport (yellow), Ekman transport (red), upper mid-ocean transport (purple) and overturning transport (dark blue) for the available record from 2004 to 2020. Also shown are the basinwide transports in the upper and lower NADW layers (UNADW: 1100-3000 m; LNADW: 3000-5000 m; green and light blue lines, respectively). The high-frequency data represent 10-day averages while the superimposed curves are 18-month lowpass filtered data after removal of each series' climatological seasonal cycle


Adapted from Johns et al. (2023) [in press].


MHT time series with its main components

The MHT time series with main components and annual averages

Time series of net meridional heat transport (black), and temperature transports (relative to 0°C) of the Gulf Stream (blue), Ekman layer (green), and Mid-ocean region (red). Thin lines are 10-day averages and thick lines are 90-day lowpass filtered results. Annual averages of the net heat transport are shown in gray boxes.


Adapted from Johns et al. (2023) [in press].


 Overturning and Gyre Heat Transports

The overturning and gyre heat transports

Heat transport decomposition into an "overturning" component (QOT, derived from the zonally averaged velocity and temperature in depth coordinates, red curve), and a "gyre" component (QGYRE, derived from velocity and temperature anomalies with respect to the zonal mean, also computed in depth coordinates, blue curve). Total heat transport is shown in black; all time series are 90-day lowpass filtered. 


Adapted from Johns et al. (2023) [in press].

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